The cause of theunion of the finite and infinite might be described as a higher law; thefinal measure which is the highest expression of the good may also bedescribed as the supreme law. For anact which is the cause of happiness to one person may be the cause ofunhappiness to another; or an act which if performed by one person mayincrease the happiness of mankind may have the opposite effect if performedby another. Hence, withoutany reconciliation or even remark, in the Republic he speaks at one time ofGod or Gods, and at another time of the Good. The theoretical element of the arts may also become a purely abstractscience, when separated from matter, and is then said to be pure andunmixed. Imagine, if you will, that Societyoriginated in the herding of brutes, in their parental instincts, in theirrude attempts at self-preservation:--Man is not man in that he resembles,but in that he differs from them. Nor are weable to say how far Plato in the Philebus conceives the finite and infinite(which occur both in the fragments of Philolaus and in the Pythagoreantable of opposites) in the same manner as contemporary Pythagoreans. Yes, retorts Socrates, pleasure is like pleasure, as figure islike figure and colour like colour; yet we all know that there is greatvariety among figures and colours. For are not love and sorrow as well as anger 'sweeter than honey,'and also full of pain? There is yet a third view which combines the two:--freedom is obedience tothe law, and the greatest order is also the greatest freedom; 'Act so thatthy action may be the law of every intelligent being.' Hence (by his ownconfession) the main thesis is not worth determining; the real interestlies in the incidental discussion. The extreme and one-sided doctrines of the Cynics andCyrenaics are included in a larger whole; the relations of pleasure andknowledge to each other and to the good are authoritatively determined; theEleatic Being and the Heraclitean Flux no longer divide the empire ofthought; the Mind of Anaxagoras has become the Mind of God and of theWorld. Fourth, sciences and arts and true opinions. Plato served in the cause of Athens and its Allies between 409 and 404 B.C.E. I am speaking, not of the frequency orcontinuance, but only of the intensity of such pleasures, and this is giventhem by contrast with the pain or sickness of body which precedes them. Are we not liable, orrather certain, as in the case of sight, to be deceived by distance andrelation? SOCRATES: Observe, Protarchus, the nature of the position which you are now going to take from Philebus, and what the other position is which I maintain, and which, if you do not approve of it, is to be controverted by you. share. The earlier discussions aboutuniversal ideas and definitions seem to have died away; the correlation ofideas has taken their place. To promote their happiness is not his first object, butto elevate their moral nature. The dialogue's central question concerns the relative value of pleasure and knowledge, and produces a model for thinking about how complex structures are developed. But there is nosuch coexistence of the pain of thirst with the pleasures of drinking; theyare not really simultaneous, for the one expels the other. Bearing in mind the distinction which we have been seeking to establishbetween our earliest and our most mature ideas of morality, we may nowproceed to state the theory of Utility, not exactly in the words, but inthe spirit of one of its ablest and most moderate supporters (Mill'sUtilitarianism):--'That which alone makes actions either right or desirableis their utility, or tendency to promote the happiness of mankind, or, inother words, to increase the sum of pleasure in the world. the reference of pleasure to the indefinite class, compared with theassertion which almost immediately follows, that pleasure and painnaturally have their seat in the third or mixed class: these twostatements are unreconciled. Yes, retortsSocrates, and also to pain the character of absolute evil. We may then proceed to examine (VI) the relationof the Philebus to the Republic, and to other dialogues. And we can more easily suppose that Platocomposed shorter writings after longer ones, than suppose that he lost holdof further points of view which he had once attained. The upright man of the world will desire above allthings that morality should be plain and fixed, and should use language inits ordinary sense. Having shown howsorrow, anger, envy are feelings of a mixed nature, I will reserve theconsideration of the remainder for another occasion. The second class of pleasures involves memory. For all pleasure and all knowledge may be viewed eitherabstracted from the mind, or in relation to the mind (compare Aristot. (6) The sciences are likewise divided into two classes, theoretical andproductive: of the latter, one part is pure, the other impure.
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